Achieving a Higher Level Of Education Through a Distance Learning Masters Degree

With the completion of undergraduate courses through a college or university, most people will move on to pursue their career of choice. For many, this is the culmination of four years of hard work and a time to begin a new life that was made possible through  education .

However, somewhere down the road – very soon after earning an undergraduate degree or years later – it may become apparent that a masters degree would significantly elevate your status and financial earnings in the workplace. Or, you may feel that you wish to update your skills and make yourself a more marketable employee by earning a higher degree.

In either case, pursuing a masters degree can seem like a logistical impossibility with an already busy work and family life. Luckily, for those in exactly this situation, a distance learning degree can make that higher  education  achievable no matter what your schedule.

This type of degree is earned much like a traditional degree – through predetermined course work and examinations. However, distance learning work is completed in the comfort and privacy of the student’s home. This allows the non-traditional student the ability to fit studies around the other priorities in their life including full or part-time work and family.

Online colleges and universities often offer the opportunity to earn a masters degree in a variety of subjects. As the popularity of distance learning continues to grow, so does the list of courses offered. Most modern students will find exactly what they are looking for in a number of online educational settings.

Traditional colleges and universities also offer their students the ability to earn a distance learning master’s degree. As more and more non-traditional students look for ways to earn higher degrees of  education  and still balance their lives, colleges and universities are making modern learning available on a grander scale.

This can be especially attractive to those students who earn their undergraduate degree through a particular school; they are then able to embark upon their career while earning a master’s degree through the very same school.

Through distance learning, a professor acts as an online facilitator outlining the course syllabus through email or an online “classroom.” Students are often required to purchase books, and lessons are taught through these books in addition to online tutelage and even video lessons.

Course work is often required to be turned in on a particular schedule; but the times at which students do their class work is entirely dependent on their schedule. The convenience of distance learning lies in the ability to fit school into your life instead of the other way around.

Today’s  education  environment calls for options when it comes to earning a degree. The future of  education  lies in the ability of students to achieve their goals in a way that is conducive to their lifestyle. A distance learning masters degree can bring students closer to career and personal goals; and do so in a way that maximizes the convenience to the student.

Civil Engineering – Online Education Options

There are a number of accredited online schools and colleges that allow students to train for a career in civil engineering. Civil engineers are trained professionals whose work covers a variety of areas such as environmental, structural, and mechanical engineering. An accredited online  education  in the field of engineering can provide students with the opportunity to gain the skills and knowledge they need to find employment. Students can choose to pursue an associates, bachelors, masters or doctorates degree while specializing in a number of areas inside the industry.

Online associate degree programs in civil engineering provide students with a number of educational training options to choose from. Students can earn a degree at this level in as little as two years of study with an online school or college. Associate level degree training gives students the skills needed to work as:

  • Engineering Technicians
  • Land Surveyors
  • Cartographers
  • CAD Operators

Online coursework will provide students with knowledge in:

  • Physics
  • Cartography
  • Topography
  • Estimating
  • Surveying
  • Computer Aided Drafting (CAD)

Students can specialize in a number of areas with an associate level degree. These areas include working with heavy construction, consulting firms, and government agencies. With an accredited online associates degree training program students will obtain the knowledge needed to pursue a bachelor’s degree or enter the workforce.

There are a variety of accredited online schools and colleges for students to choose from when looking to earn a bachelors degree in civil engineering. With an accredited online bachelors degree program students will be able to prepare for the career they desire in civil engineering. Students will concentrate on specific areas like:

  • Structural
  • Water Resources
  • Environmental
  • Transportation Engineering

Course curriculum may include the study of subjects like:

  • Management
  • Construction
  • Technology
  • Communications

Bachelor’s degree programs train students to work for commercial centers, architectural firms, and government. A degree at this level can provide the knowledge needed to pursue a master’s or doctoral degree in the field.

Graduate degrees in civil engineering are available to students from a number of accredited online educational programs. A PhD or masters degree in civil engineering will allow students to pursue careers in:

  • Research
  • Teaching
  • Construction
  • Composing and Devising

With an online school or college students will be able to study:

  • Physics
  • Construction
  • Math
  • Probability and Statistics
  • Engineering Project Management

Students will learn the skills needed to pursue various careers in the field with online training and continuing  education  programs.

There are a variety of accredited online educational programs that offer training for those looking to pursue a career in civil engineering. Students can find more information about accredited engineering programs by visiting the ABET website ( ). Students can attend classes through online studies and coursework to fit their schedule. Online schools and colleges will provide the knowledge and skills needed for students to enter the career they desire. Students can request more information by contacting a number of programs that offer civil engineering degrees.

DISCLAIMER: Above is a GENERIC OUTLINE and may or may not depict precise methods, courses and/or focuses related to ANY ONE specific school(s) that may or may not be advertised at

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Customizing a Continuing Education Certificate Program

In today’s fast-paced society, a continuing  education  certificate program may answer the need to stay on top of all of the new developments in the career world. Selecting a personalized program to fit a particular path or career is a step-by-step process with a broad range of possibilities and options.

One of the first questions to answer is what type of continuing  education  is best. Some courses simply help the student to acquire practical skills to complement a former course of study. These newly acquired skills are highly valued in the world of industry, even though they may have been obtained through a non-accredited university. Other programs offer college credit plus a certificate; some award only the certificate. Of equal importance is the selection of the area of study. Courses are as varied as real estate, information technology, biotechnology,  education , nursing, business, science, math, ecology, and human rights. Some classes are geared more toward life-long learning than a specific academic category. Both the type of program and the choice of courses depend on the purpose for continuing  education . Does the learner desire to qualify for a new job, change careers, get a promotion, stay updated on new developments within the present career, or explore an entirely new field? Perhaps the adult student wants to earn credits for re-certification in the educational field, stimulate professional growth, or just deepen an area of personal interest. Most programs ensure that the individual will gain the knowledge and skills needed, plus provide a credential valued in the work place.

Several options are available for the learning format of the course, which is the third step in the process of customizing an educational program. The adult selects a strategy suited to his schedule and learning style: online learning, on-campus programs, or blended courses that combine biweekly or monthly classroom experiences on campus with online course material that is available 24 hours a day, seven days a week. Both types may include networking with other students and with professors. Some courses start quarterly; others may begin every few weeks. Often the instructors, whether in the classroom or online, hold advanced degrees and have experience in the fields that they teach. Building an adult  education  certificate program around the type of course needed, area of study chosen and personal classroom preference is one way for the student to respond to the current demand for trained, updated professionals who have the knowledge and skills necessary to compete in today’s world.

The Practice of Safe Sex Education Among Teens

There are greater calls nowadays for safe sex. People now acknowledge the need to have protected sex with the rapidly increasing cases of unwanted pregnancies and the widespread of various sexually transmitted diseases.

Some research efforts have found that kids nowadays have knowledge and exposure to the subject of sex at younger ages of about 12 to 14 years old. This is the age of puberty, wherein both girls and boys start to get really curious about the changes in their physical structures. Because of youth and lack of sufficient knowledge and information, many teenagers fall into practicing pre-marital and teenage sex.

Teenagers think having sex at younger age makes them adults. Never do most of them think of the greater responsibilities and risks that come along with teenage, premarital and unprotected sex. Unfortunately, consequences and events can transpire before teenagers realize the danger and disadvantage of engaging in unprotected sex.

Safe sex is very important. That is because the primary evolutionary purpose for sexual drive is to reproduce. Failure to practice educated and safe sex can lead to unplanned pregnancy for teenagers who are just starting out in life. This is a usual pitfall for teenagers engaging in premarital sex. Those youngsters who neglect the value and importance of safe sex are often led to live with diminished potential because of early parenthood. The need for sex  education  pales in comparison to the burden of how those kids would raise families and kids of their own.

In addition to unplanned pregnancy would be the risk of contracting sexually transmitted diseases. Simple sexual ailments like herpes and gonorrhea are easily transmitted. Worse, if the STD contracted is HIV or human immunodeficiency virus, there is a greater possibility for the occurrence of AIDS. Teenagers are most prone to the disease because they are curious and are open to being sexually adventurous.

What can parents and societies do to help ensure that teenagers would practice safe sex? For a start, parents might assert that ensuring that their kids abstain from sex would be the best way. However most recent studies have shown that abstinence-only  education  does not help prevent teenagers from engaging in sex. So if that would fail, it would be easy to just make the kids prepared for any possibility.

Disseminating knowledge about safe sex is highly recommended. It is the concept of still enjoying sex albeit the use of several tools and items to safeguard both parties. Through safe sex, unwanted pregnancy and sexual disease transfer can be effectively curtailed. There can be an obvious delineation in any lesson plan between educating teenagers on safe sex and encouraging it.

What is the most common types of safe sex? The use of condoms is so far identified as the most common and practical form of safe sex. Through the use of latex rubbers, sexual couples would not be exposed to risks of infections and the possibility of early or premarital pregnancy would be effectively eliminated.

History of the Fire Extinguisher – Find Out Who Invented the Fire Extinguisher

The portable fire extinguisher is an essential appliance in every workplace these days, not least because governments recognizing their vital role in fire safety have made it illegal not to provide them. Have you ever wondered how long these ingenious devices have been around, or who it was who invented them?

Who Invented The First Fire Extinguisher?

The answer to this depends on what you mean by fire extinguisher. The first example of something recognizable as a portable fire fighting device can be found nearly 200 years ago. George Manby made this breakthrough in England in 1813 with what he called an ‘Extincteur’. It consisted of a copper container which had inside it three gallons of potassium carbonate solution and compressed air. This was the first example of the basic principle behind all fire extinguishers today, where a fire suppressant is propelled out of a container by a pressurized gas.

Credit should be given, however, to the chemist Ambrose Godfrey, who devised the first automatic fire fighting device ninety years before Manby’s portable extinguisher. Abrose Godfrey’s fire extinguisher was not designed to be portable, but to be left in place in a room to protect it in case fire started. It could be seen as a precursor to modern day sprinkler systems. Godfrey’s device had a series of fuses, which would be ignited if a fire started in the area. These would then detonate a small explosive charge inside a container full of liquid, which was then scattered around the room, extinguishing the flames.

George Manby’s inventiveness did not end with this device, and he created various other inventions that depended on harnessing the power of small explosions. One of the best known of these was the Manby Mortar, which was used to help rescue ships in distress, by firing ropes from land onto the stricken vessels. His other ideas and inventions included a system to rescue people who had fallen into water through ice and a mechanism to save people trapped in burning buildings by allowing them to jump to safety. He was also the first person to come up with the suggestion that there should be a national fire rescue service.

Who Invented the Soda-Acid Fire Extinguisher

The soda-acid fire extinguisher works by mixing together two substances which react to produce carbon dioxide gas, which is then used to propel a liquid from the extinguisher. The first example of a soda-acid fire extinguisher was in 1866 when Francois Carlier patented his in France. In this example tartaric acid was mixed with a solution of sodium bicarbonate to produce the gas.

In the US the first example of a soda-acid fire extinguisher is the one patented by Almon M Granger in 1881, who used concentrated sulfuric acid in his version of the fire extinguisher. All soda-acid extinguishers worked on the same basic principle, which was that the acid was contained inside a small vial within the appliance, and one of several systems could be used for releasing the acid into the soda solution.

Usually the trigger to release the acid and mix the chemicals would be either a plunger or other system resulting in the breaking of the vial, or a lever system to release a stopper from one end of it. Either way, once the acid was released, the reaction produced carbon dioxide, which forced liquid out of the appliance in a jet, which could be directed at the fire through a nozzle or hose.

The first known example of a chemical foam fire extinguisher was that invented in Russia by Alexander Laurant in 1905. The idea was very similar to the principles of the soda-acid extinguisher, but a foam compound was included, which caused some of the gas to be trapped in the liquid, producing a foam. The foam compound was apparently often made from licorice root, and this would be contained in the soda solution. The extinguishers were usually activated by turning the appliance upside down to mix the chemicals.

Also known as CTC fire extinguishers, the carbon tetrachloride extinguisher was originally invented by the company Pyrene around 1912. The extinguishers propelled the liquid CTC at the fire by means of a hand pump. The CTC vaporized and produced a thick suffocating blanket over the flames, starving the fire of oxygen and preventing combustion. There was also a ‘bomb’ version of the CTC extinguisher in the form of a glass bottle that you threw at the fire.

The effectiveness of the CTC extinguisher on liquid and electrical fires made them very popular with the automotive industry for a long time, though the by-products of the process could have very serious health consequences, particularly in confined spaces. It was therefore later replaced by extinguishers using less toxic chemicals.

That same basic principle invented by George Manby, where a gas is used to force a combustion suppressant out of a container, is still the main mechanism behind all modern day portable fire extinguishers. Most modern fire extinguishers will work on one of two main systems. The compressed gas will either be stored inside the main container itself, known as stored pressure type extinguishers, or in a small cartridge inside, known as gas cartridge type extinguishers.

Stored pressure are the most common type of extinguishers, the advantage of gas cartridge being that they are easier to recharge if used fairly frequently. Carbon dioxide fire extinguishers are the only exception to this in that they simply contain liquid carbon dioxide under pressure.

The development and refinement of portable fire extinguishers has come a long way in the last two hundred years. The many different types of fire have now been classified, and all modern day fire extinguishers are given a rating show which type of fires they are safe to use on and how effective they are. These classifications and ratings are an important development because tackling a fire with the wrong type of fire extinguisher can have very serious consequences, such as electrocution cause by using a water extinguisher on an electrical fire.

Historic Backgrounds on Culinary Arts

If you call your daughter’s first attempt at cooking stew something of a culinary art, then historic backgrounds on culinary arts would date as far back as the time when people were just learning how to make fire. Of course, they were making simple dishes then; just roasting their fresh catch over fire made by rubbing two sticks together. Today, culinary has grown to extreme heights. But all these came to be because of years of hard work and deep passion for cooking.

Historic backgrounds on culinary can be traced back to the 1800’s. Boston Cooking School, the first American cooking school, made its mark when it taught students the art of American cooking. The first cookbook written in 1896 by a student in the same school, Fannie Merrit Farmer made it as part of the historic backgrounds on culinary. The cookbook is still being used as a reference up to this date.

A series of historic backgrounds on culinary followed after a couple of years. The year 1946 signaled a new evolution in the teaching technique. James Beard’s regular American cooking lessons on TV earned him the moniker “the grandfather of the American cuisine”. The historic backgrounds in culinary arts have never been more significant than the founding of the Culinary Institute of America (CIA) on the same year. The institution is the country’s first school to offer career-based courses on cooking.

Julia Child invaded American kitchens through the radio in 1960. She introduced the French cuisine to the American society which earned her the right to be in the historic backgrounds on culinary arts.

The first few historic backgrounds on culinary have opened the gates for more culinary schools all over the world. The year 1977 welcomed the California Culinary Academy. In 1980, it was the New England Culinary Institute’s turn to open. The French Culinary Institute followed suit and opened its doors too cooking enthusiasts in 1984.

Like any other school, the culinary schools also have their own accreditation organization. The ACFEI Accrediting Commission was put up in 1986 and was able to accredit five schools in the same year. This is an essential event in the historic backgrounds on culinary arts because this is going to drive the different culinary art schools to adhere to a set of standards.

Today, there are hundreds of schools boasting to teach people the best cooking methods and techniques. No wonder foods have become so diversified. Eating has never been more fun than tasting foods that we have never tasted before. The historic backgrounds on culinary arts have contributed greatly in letting us enjoy dining more so today than in the past.

No Child Left Behind – Developmental Steps to Success

No Child Left Behind school performance mandates have compelled educators to find the most effective ways to help developmentally challenged students overcome their learning difficulties and meet NCLB testing standards. Successful practices supported by body and brain research have emerged. Listed below are proven steps that help students achieve their learning potential, and gracefully meet No Child Left Behind goals.

NCLB Step: Integrate primitive reflexes. Learning is more difficult when clusters of prenatal and infant primitive reflexes go unintegrated. These survival reflexes automatically control the muscles; they are supposed to be replaced with postural reflexes giving voluntary control over movement. When left unintegrated, primitive reflexes make writing, reading, spelling and math more difficult. Symptoms resulting from retained reflexes include tight pencil grip, torn papers, poor penmanship, letter reversals, incessant wiggling, slouching, clumsiness, restlessness, lack of focus, attention deficit, erratic eye control, and more. Neurostimulation activities can integrate aberrant reflexes, helping students reach No Child Left Behind goals more effortlessly.

NCLB Step: Fully develop movement patterns. Children need to build a strong neurological foundation upon which learning can be built. Putting infants on their tummy frequently during waking moments strengthens a baby’s reaching, rolling, crawling, and creeping. Don’t rush this; allow plenty of time for neural networks connecting both sides of the brain to strengthen – these pathways will eventually be used for reading, writing, talking, and spelling. Replace television and inactive playtime with frequent, full-bodied movement activities, leading to NCLB mastery.

NCLB Step: Fortify the vestibular system. Located in the inner ear, vestibular structures connect to the eyes, ears, tactile, muscle/joint, and attentional systems. Lack of frequent stop-and-go activities, rolling, spinning, bouncing and balancing weaken this vital system, resulting in many learning challenges. Students with a ‘hypo slow’ vestibular system may have a sluggish attentional system, lack muscle tone to sit still, and weak visual and auditory processing skills essential for reading. At times they require big, bouncy, angular movements to fully attend. Students with a ‘hyper fast’ vestibular system are easily overwhelmed visually and auditorily. They may need to calm themselves with walking, rocking, or swinging. A weak vestibular system and learning disabilities often go hand-in-hand. Neurostimulation through frequent, intense, enduring activities strengthen the system, helping students reach NCLB goals.

NCLB Step: Strengthen sensory input. Initial learning arrives to the brain through the senses. Enhancing this neural delivery system through art, music, sports, play, drama, and other sensory activities will help students sharpen visual acuity and auditory processing skills required for reading, writing, spelling and math. Students having problems receiving, perceiving, and responding to sensory input, require organized sensory integration activities designed to bolster their senses, allowing them to best achieve NCLB learning goals.

NCLB Step: Reinforce motor output. Academic performance skills such as writing, reading, talking, and keyboarding all require a fine-tuned muscular system. Motor planning activities (e.g., hopscotch, sport skills) improve children’s ability to follow directions and solve problems. Hand-eye activities (e.g., catching a ball, assembling a puzzle) enhance the visual spatial system involved with spelling. Sequenced movements (e.g., Macarena dance) engage the cerebellum, strengthening automatic brain pathways needed to build implicit NCLB performance skills.

NCLB Step: Prime the body/brain. Pump neurochemicals that energize and calm the mindbody, creating optimal learning states. Large muscle movements create dopamine, a chemical essential to paying attention and carrying out frontal lobe functions needed to think. Serotonin, endorphin, adrenalin, and other chemicals can be produced through heightened physical activity to create feelings of well-being, raising focus, attention, motivation, and long-term memory. It has been estimated that 98% of the chemicals used by the brain to regulate feelings and manage cognition are produced within the body. Physical movement pumps these chemicals to the brain through the blood stream. Invigorated and focused – students have greater energy to pursue NCLB goals!

NCLB Step: Provide ample downtime. Essential! Learning consists of creating new synaptic connections between body/brain cells. These tiny gaps require downtime to fully adhere to the neurons they connect to. Balancing study time with downtime strengthens these new neural pathways. Reducing curriculum helps cut pack n’ stack, piling on facts, always staying on task. More art, music, theatre, physical  education , and other enriching downtime activities also help strengthen synapses, allowing students to master academics well beyond NCLB standards.

NCLB Step: Make leaning enjoyable! Many educators serious about reaching NCLB mandates have reduced leisure time learning activities allowing students to fully cultivate personal interests. Lock-step learning and hard discipline used to maintain control have reduced joyous, creative, celebrated learning. Making learning fun and relevant sparks the brain’s pleasure-reward circuits. Motivation increases, helping keen students reach NCLB learning goals with maximum effort.

Summary: Achieving No Child Left Behind mandates requires developmental and motivational approaches, helping the most challenged students resolve their learning difficulties through well-planned physical activity. Integrating primitive and postural reflexes, building the vestibular, sensory and motor systems, and creating ideal learning states using downtime, primetime, and enjoyable activities will build new, durable body/brain networks, helping students reach their learning potential and achieve NCLB goals in the most pleasant, vibrant, and fulfilling ways.

List of Greek Gods Goddesses


The god of wine and the grapevine predates the Greeks with an origin covering Thrace, Asia Minor, Syria, and even as far as Egypt. Firstly an agricultural god, this “deity of Mt. Nysa” was an early supreme being whose wild and riotous worship was famous all over the eastern sphere of the Mediterranean, the most notable form was the Thracian.


Orignally a Thracian and Trojan deity whose power and authority surpassed that of Zeus. Apollo stood for a multitude of classifications as: the god of prophecy; the beneficial god and protector from evil; the god of punishment and vengeance; the god of song and music; the god of flocks and cattle; the god of politics; the god of the Sun; and the god of the nether world.

Artemis (Diana)

The Greek goddess of the hunt hailed from the warlike regions of Asia Minor and in different versions depending on the locality she was worshipped. There was an Ephesian Artemis, the one identified in the Bible to Diana; a Taurian that received strangers thrown on the coast of Tauris as sacrifice; an Arcadian that hunted in the mountains with her nymphs; and the Trojan, as Apollo’s twin sister.

Zeus (Jupiter)

The Greek father of gods and men was originally not Greek but a Cretan import. According to legend, he was said to have been raced away to Crete as an infant by his mother Rhea to escape being devoured by his father Cronos. Since his pre-Hellenic times, bulls and goats were offered to him in sacrifice.


Like Zeus, she was a Minoan import. Later “Mother Goddess” cults entering Greece from Asia Minor, including one named Cybel, became identified with Rhean worship. In Greek mythology, she fled to Crete to give birth to Zeus for fear of the child being devoured by Cronos. Upon returning, to appease her hungry husband, she gave to him a stone inconspicuously wrapped up like the infant Zeus.


The second most powerful Greek god, ruler of the waters and earthquakes, was also not Greek. He was a principal Trojan deity who was said to have built the impregnable walls of Troy. The horses that naturally inhabited Troy gained him the Grecian impression as the god of horses.


Her worship came from that of the Phoenician sea goddess Astarte, known in the Bible as Ashtoreth. She was the wife of Ares, another alien god, with whom she bore the Amazons.


One of the most hated of the Greeks, Ares was a Thracian import. And like most Thracian import, he was savage and sanguinary: a character inherited by his descendants, the Amazons.


He is the only pre-Hellenic deity that received human sacrifices. In analogy to his name, he was known to eat his own children: a characteristic of time that destroys whatever it has created. He was deposed by Zeus, prompting him to flee to Italy as Saturn where he begins an agricultural golden age.

Should You Invest in an Aged Care Career?

Within Australia, the aged care industry is continuing to grow and develop. As this industry grows, many great opportunities for work are opening up. As the baby boomers continue to age, there is little doubt that this field will continue to grow in the future. If you’re looking for a new career that offers great potential, you may want to consider taking a good aged care course so you can get involved in this field. Here is a helpful guide that can provide great information so you can decide if you should invest in an aged care career of your own.

Benefits of Being Certified

Before you decide to get your certificate to it, you may be wondering if there are any benefits to choosing this route. One of the main benefits of getting your certification is that if offers a variety of flexible entry arrangements to the field. After you achieve your certificate, it becomes easy to get started in a good career. You also will find that there are many different career options you can follow when you are certified, giving you quite a few choices. Many people who get this certification find that work comes to them, helping them to avoid a long job search. You’ll also enjoy great job security, since the need for caregivers in this area will only continue to grow in the future.

Possible Career Options

After you take an aged care course, you’ll find that you have several possible career options to choose from. The course will prepare you to offer psychological, physical and social care to those with disabilities and elderly people. This allows you to work in private residences, communities and even nursing homes.

One potential career option is an assistant in nursing, which is a great option for those who want to work in an nursing home. For those who want to offer passionate and considerate care, a personal care assistant may be a great career. Community support workers can benefit from a course in aged care as well, since they work with those with disabilities, the elderly and their families. You may even want to consider a career as a home care assistant, which allows you to offer assistance and help to elderly patients that want to remain living at home.

Choosing the Right Course

If you decide you want to take a good aged care course, it can be tough to decide which training organisation to go with. To ensure you choose a quality course, there are a few tips you need to keep in mind. First, ensure the course is recognised nationally. Courses should also be at least 10-12 weeks in length. Make sure that practical training is offered as part of the course and that good work experience is offered. With a good course behind you, you can use your certificate to help you start a new and fulfilling career.

All About Beards and Mustaches

The hair that grows on a man’s face is called his beard. When he lets it grow long, he is said to have a beard. Hair that grows on the upper lip is known as a mustache. Beards and mustaches are out of style in the United States, where most men shave their faces clean, but a great many American men wore beards and mustaches until about fifty years ago. Abraham Lincoln wore a beard, and two of the most famous generals who commanded the Southern armies during the American Civil War, Robert E. Lee and Stonewall Jackson, both wore beards, as did many other generals.

General A. E Burnside, one of the commanders of the Northern armies during this war, used to wear “side-whiskers,” or hair that grew down both sides of the face, while he shaved his chin. After the war many American men used to wear this kind of beard, which they called “burnsides.” A short, pointed beard on the chin, known as the “vandyke,” is still popular in France, where beards are much more common than in America. This beard is named after Anthony Vandyke, the great painter of Holland, who often painted men with short, pointed beards.

Napoleon III, who became emperor of France about a hundred years ago, used to wear a pointed tuft of hair on his chin and a stiff, straight mustache with waxed points. This pointed tuft of hair on the chin came to be called an “imperial,” and is still popular with some European men. Paintings of Jesus often show him with a short beard. The man who wears a beard is usually proud of it. To pull a man’s beard is often a deadly insult. In the Bible there is a story of how David, king of Jerusalem, sent friendly messages to Hanun, king of the Ammonites, a near-by tribe. Hanun shaved off half the beards of David’s messengers and sent them back to their king in disgrace. With their beards half shaven off the men were too ashamed to return to the king, so David allowed them to stay in a place called Jericho until their beards grew back. For this insult to his messengers and to himself, David made war on the Ammonites and destroyed them. alicevbheatherta alicevbheatherta aliceananabinar aliceananabinar katherinehjjudith katherinehjjudith Agustus stable Edu